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Tag Archives: Judge Barbara Milano Keenan

Whistleblower pleading standard clarified by court (access required)

4tth Circuit Seal FEA

Direct evidence of government payment and receipt of fraudulent services must be alleged at the pleading stage for a qui tam action to survive a motion to dismiss, the 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals has ruled. Despite this, a ...

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New York robbery conviction qualified as ‘crime of violence’ (access required)

Because New York’s robbery statute required the use or threatened use of violent physical force, the defendant’s prior conviction for first degree robbery in New York was sufficient to impose the career offender sentencing enhancement under the Sentencing Guidelines. Background ...

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Arbitrator should decide whether to arbitrate Fair Credit claim (access required)

The delegation clause in the credit card agreement “clearly and unmistakably” places questions of arbitrability within the province of the arbitrator, and the district court erred in denying a motion to compel arbitration of a claim that the credit company ...

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Denial of overtime could be adverse employment action (access required)

A woman’s loss of an opportunity to earn overtime, which was a significant portion of her earnings, could be an adverse employment action sufficient to support a claim for retaliation, and her hostile work environment and retaliation suit is remanded. ...

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No error in sentencing defendant for unlawful firearm’s possession (access required)

The district court did not err in increasing the defendant’s base offense level because of two prior convictions. Background In 2016, Allen pleaded guilty to the unlawful possession of firearms by a convicted felon. The probation officer prepared a presentence ...

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Requiring proof of residency may be Fair Housing violation (access required)

4tth Circuit Seal FEA

A mobile home park may have violated the Fair Housing Act by requiring residents to provide proof of their legal residency in the United States, the 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals has ruled. Four Latino families allege that the ...

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EDVA: Districts’ black voter thresholds lack justification (access required)

Race predominated over traditional districting factors in construction of 11 challenged Virginia House of Delegates districts. This use of race was not narrowly tailored to achieve the interest of complying with the Voting Rights Act. Thus, the district divisions are ...

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4th Cir.: Pleading standard clarified for CWA discharge claims (access required)

On an issue of first impression in this circuit, plaintiffs in citizen suits under the Clean Water Act must allege a “direct hydrological connection” between ground water and navigable waters in order to state a claim for a discharge of ...

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